According to Spanish law, the lambda factor will be 0.97 to 1.03 for vehicles up to 2003 and the factor of CO2 will be a maximum of 0.5.

There is no relation between the increase of displacement and environmental pollution.

It is advised that before any building/tuning of the engine, especially if it requires the ECU change or bigger cams, that you check with your dyno staff/rolling road about the necessary parts that must be incorporated into the engine to meet environmental standards.

As explained above, VGKracing does not accept any responsibility in the issue of environmental pollution, sound or gas.


Additional Info and MOT

At VGKracing we layout the best information to assist our customers and others interested in obtaining reliable and accurate data to improve the performance of their engines and have a wider knowledge of the possibilities that technology can offer. This will increase performance and engine longevity and help to reduce fuel consumption and environmental pollution.


Emerald LTD Company’s advise for the accurate adjustments for MOT

Throttle bodies are balanced using an accurate synchrometer – ensure that the readings on idle are identical and that this is also true when the throttle is just cracked open – it is very important that all throttle’s open together. It’s quite common to have a fault where one pair of throttle bodies open slightly ahead of the other pair.

With a fully warm engine you should not be running more than 5 degs ignition advance at idle. The engine idle speed should be as a result of the throttle opening and not be artificially held up by using ignition advance.

Check the fuel map resolution. Ideally it needs to be 200+ otherwise the fuelling steps near to idle will be quite coarse and make fine adjustment very difficult. The software has a rescale for maximum number function to do that easily.

Ensure that there are zero leaks in the exhaust. This is very important. Also ensure that the test probe is fully in the exhaust pipe and is not miss-reading due to contamination with outside air.

Ensure that the CAT you have fitted is working correctly – we’ve seen many over the years that have failed or partially failed.

With a Lambda figure of 1 you should really be seeing CO2 of about 0.2% - 0.3%.

Ideally do all of the above setup and then check the emissions output using a good and known to be accurate gas analyzer – Ideally positioned in the centre.

Ordinarily with the Rover K Series engines on Jenvey throttle bodies we would not see a need to fit an IACV valve and with the correct setup it should be possible to get most, if not all cams, developed for ROAD and TRACK applications to pass.

Emerald LTD.


Accurate data for Baro sensor adjustments

At VGKracing we use as a Barometric sensor a MAP sensor of the Bosch brand, because after many tests, it’s the best performing one.

The reference of this MAP sensor is 0 261 230 004, recently replaced by the reference number 0 261 230 037.

To use the MAP sensor as a Barometric sensor, just do not connect any tube on the end to the inlet manifold and put the correct settings within the ECU.


For proper installation we suggest following these steps.

Pin Nº 1 of the Baro to pin Nº 9 of the ECU. (+ 5v supply)

Pin Nº 2 of the Baro to pin Nº 30 of the ECU. (ground - polarity)

Pin Nº 3 of the Baro to pin Nº 34 of the ECU. (Signal)


Accurate data for MAP sensor adjustments

Of course this MAP sensor can also be used as such, simply plug in the tube end to the intake manifold and put the correct settings within the ECU.

This data is correct to use with the MAP sensor Rover K Series OEM.

Of course you can use both at once, place two sensors when using an Emerald K3 and just assign a different signal wire for each and putting the two data tables in the ECU.

If the Emerald is a K6, this already has inside a Baro sensor, so you should go to "Configuration Ecu", "Baro Sensor Calibration" and select in the box "Input Source" the option "(9) K6 internal " and in the box "Signal Smoothing" the Nº 1.


Accurate data for Wideband adjustments

At VGKracing we are currently working with the Innovate brand and LC1 type.

For proper installation we suggest following these steps.

Red wire (+ 12v) with a fuse of at least 5 Amp and take the voltage via ignition switch, preferably from multi funtion relay unit.

Brown wire (signal) with a resistance of 100 Ohm/0.5 Watts to pin Nº 35 of the ECU.

White and blue wire to a good earth.

We must also put the data into of the wideband, here is the data needed to fit perfectly into the Emerald ECU.

Now we must put the correct data into the ECU for its perfect operation. A wideband is a perfect item to make an approach if we don’t have an apropiate map and want to make the best one possible before going to the dyno to make the ECU map definitive.

If we do not have a perfect map, we can initially apply this "Feedback Mode" and this "Closed Loop Settings".

Once you set the map after spending multiple corrections, you can change the "Closed Loop Settings" for this one, which limits the wideband and makes it more accurate.

Once the map is definitely finished, probably the "Feedback Mode" is changed to one that best suits the engine performance.

Of course, the more control elements of the fuel mixture and air, the easier it will reduce consumption and be controlled the gas emissions.

The use of the MAP sensor in engines with bigger cams will probably prevent the correct operation of the engine under heavy and full load conditions and medium/high rpm. The same way any map that was adjust the existing legisIation on environmental pollution, will prevent the possibility of obtaining the maximum power and torque.


Accurate data for IACV adjustments

The idle valve is rarely used on engines with inlet manifold of 4 butterflies (TB,s), but if used in VVC and K16 engines, here some examples of settings for the ECU.


Accurate data for Oxygen sensor OEM adjustments

If you use the original lambda sensor with the engine, here is an example configuration for the ECU.


Accurate data for Cam sensor adjustments

For synchronizing of the cam sensor, we use this information depending on whether of the engine is VVC or K16, provided and when using the VVC system and/or the sequential injection.


Removing the Distributor

A good option is to remove the distributor, rotor arm pipe of the inlet cam at the Rover K Series engines EU2, put a coil instead and control the ignition from the ECU. For proper installation, follow these steps.

Original wire Black/White Pin Nº 1 of the coil to pin Nº 25 of the ECU. (- Negative)

Original wire Brown/Red Pin Nº 2 of the coil to pin Nº 2 of the ECU. (+ Positive)

New wire Pin Nº 3 of the coil to pin Nº 5 of the ECU. (- Negative)

Then, just change the option "Single Coil" by "Wasted Spark" in the section "Configuration Ecu", "Ignition Output Options".


Wiring Diagram

Here are several setings to make electrical connections in an Emerald ECU, do the OEM and make a Plug and Play installation.

PDF file EU2 VVC engine to Emerald K3

PDF file EU3 VVC engine to Emerald K6

PDF file EU3 K16 engine to Emerald K6

Note: Remember to always select the boxes that correspond to the connections of the auxiliary parts that have been placed in the engine from the screen to "Ecu Configuration", "Input Channel configuration" to activate.

If we follow the examples we have used, in this case should be so in an Emerald K3.


Synchro USB to Adapter and Com Port

PDF file USB to Serial Adapter


Miscelaneous files

PDF file Gear Lever

PDF file PG1 and PG2

PDF file EU2 K Series Engine

PDF file EU3 K Series Engine

PDF file S1 Service Manual

PDF file S2 Service Manual

PDF file Ecu Fault Codes

PDF file Data Logger Guide

PDF file Emerald K3 Manual

SET file Initial Settings Map ECU

SET file Emerald K3 Software


Recommendations for choosing Spark Plugs, Engine Oil and Lambda Factor

The spark plugs and engine oil are other factors that influence consumption, longevity and engine performance. At VGKracing we only use Denso spark plugs brand and the choice of thermal grade will be based on the compression ratio and engine use.

On the subject of oil, what is truly important in addition to the kinematic viscosity is the viscosity index. We suggest that is approximately 160 +/- 5%.

For the intensive use of the Rover K Series with forged pistons, we suggest a lambda factor no more than 0.82 in high rpm conditions and high engine loads.

With this, we achieve the cooling of the pistons through the right amount of fuel, drastically minimizing the possibility for piston breakage due to overheating.

With a high lambda factor it is possible to lose a bit of power, but in return we will keep the engine safe.

Here's a short guide to assist you when choosing.

Denso Iridium IK 24
Kinematic viscosity oil at 100ºC (ASTM D-445) 11/14
Lambda Factor 0.83/0.82
Denso Iridium IK 27
Kinematic viscosity at oil 100ºC (ASTM D-445) 11/19
Lambda Factor 0.82
Denso Iridium Racing IK01 29
Kinematic viscosity at oil 100ºC (ASTM D-445) 11/25
Lambda Factor 0.81


These are approx data to help you get obtain maximum performance and protection during engine operation.


Clutch and Flywheel

We at VGKracing normally use a 184 mm diameter clutch in race engines.

We use the Eliseparts flywheel with a Group A Helix clutch next to a concentric clutch slave cylinder with the proper travel release to operate the clutch in rover PG1 gearbox.


The use a 19 mm master cylinder is recommended.

It is possible to remove material, leaving the flywheel with a weight of just 2 Kg and then rebalance.

You can use an organic or cerametallic drive plate.

You can also use this clutch on street with organic drive plate.


1.9K Block

At VGKracing we make the 1.9K engine block using the same technique and materials that we use to make the 2.0K engine block, we only change the inner liners diameter.

Engine tech data

Bore x stroke: 82.50 x 89.30 mm
Displacement: 1909 c.c.
Piston crown volume: 8.5 c.c.
Con rod length: 133.1 mm
Con rod ratio: 1.49/1
Piston and piston pin weight: 312 grams
Ring thickness: 1.2/1.5/2.0 mm
RA code liners: 0.75-1


The 1.9K blocks can only use the MLS head gasket.

The volume of MLS head gasket is 10 c.c.


1.9K Piston Dome to Combustion Chamber clearance

Due to the height differences in Rover K Series blocks, and the height in our 1.9K pistons, if you are concerned with the clearance between the piston dome and the combustion chamber, and you wish to check it, here is the procedure to do so.

- We will proceed to the complete block assembly with the pistons, con rods and crank.
- Then we will turn the crack until a piston is exactly positioned on TDC.
- Now we must lubricate the combustion chamber with oil.
- Then we will clean the piston dome with thinner and then we apply the play dough over the cleaned area.
- We will place the complete MLS gasket head and tighten the head bolts with the corresponding torque.
- We will turn crank completly 2 or 3 times and proceed to disassemble the head.
- We can now observe that the play dough has the head combustion chamber shape.
- Using a vernier caliper, we now measure the play dough thickness by introducing the vernier caliper throug the play dough until the vernier caliper rests in the piston dome.
- If you exceed the minimum measurement that JE advises, we should not have any problem.

Here is a complete guide with the measurements.

PDF File Complete JE Guide

Note: We´ve never had to reduce the height of a piston to avoid hitting against the cylinder head.


Removing material from the Piston Deck and reducing compression

If you see that the piston hits the combustion chamber or you want to lower the compression ratio, then you have three options:

- A) You can reduce some of the material of the piston deck, but always try to eliminate the minimum possible, consider removing a maximum of 0.15 mm for a racing engine, 0.25 mm for track days or an engine limited to 7600 rpm and 0.50 mm for a street engine or limited to 7300 rpm.

- B) You can reduce the material in this area to be at the same depth as the valve pockets. The approx inclination is 21.5/22 degrees.

- C) You can place a second additional shim from another MLS head gasket.

Here’s a picture that shows the areas where you can remove material.

PDF file Piston

Note: Removing material from the piston deck is a delicate operation and may damage the pistons. That way we recommend to start removing material from the A zone, as show on the above PDF file.


Causes for excessive oil consumption

Not doing the break-in on road or dyno as described on this website. Without a proper break-in, the piston rings will never adjust in the liners and will produce high oil consumption.

Using a wrong ECU map. This is because an incorrect ECU map can cause, in certain areas, the lack and/or excess of fuel and a spark jump out of sync. If any of these factors occur, abnormal wear on the liner, piston and piston rings will occur due to overheating by fuel shortages. In the same manner, fuel excess will cause a continuous washing of the liner, thus preventing the proper fit between liner and piston ring, causing abnormal wear on both and oil contamination.

Once the oil is contaminated, it will lose its own properties and cause the wear of the seals and valve guides and may even lead to complete engine failure.

The right way to have a reliable engine without high oil consumption is to go directly with the car or engine to a dyno, and using mineral oil make the ECU map until approx 4500 rpm. After 5000 Kms, using synthetic oil, we should then return to the dyno and finish the ECU map to the maximum rpm.

Note: The overheating on the piston deck/dome/crown produces engine break.


Length inlet manifold on the engine 2.0K for the highest performance

As a general rule, 2.0K engines obtained higher performance with 90 mm or larger trumpets and sometimes the addition of spacers needed.


Pressure in the oil pump

As a general rule, the correct pressure in the lubrication system is between 1.5 and 2.3 Kg with oil at 85 degrees.


Blow-by and breathing

During engine operation, due to the high pressure in the combustion chamber, a portion of the gases produced are sent to the crankcase because the imperfect fit of the rings with the liners. This happens in all internal combustion engines, but there are factors that increase the harmful effects, they are:

-Worn rings and/or liners.

-High Compression Ratio.

-Cams with little lift and degrees.

In order to try to reduce the causes that increase these problems, we must try to have the right components, perform a good break-in and have a good breathing system in the engine to remove some of the existing pressure.

There are several strategies to have a good breathing system, and are as follows:

-In the cam cover there are two engine breathing holes, we must use a larger diameter drill bit to increase its size, will use a 9/9.5 mm and a 6.5/7 mm.

If that wasn’t enough, we can also make a small hole and place a pin on the engine oil fill plug.

With this, we will greatly reduce the effect of pressure within the engine and oil contamination.


Mathematical Formulas

Here is a little guide with the most used mathematical formulas.

Tyre diameter
Dn= D x (H : 100) x 2 + d
D= Tyre width
H= Tyre height
d= Rim diameter
Theoretical tyre circumference
Dlt= Dn x PI
Dn= Tyre diameter
PI= 3.1416
Real tyre circumference
Dlr= Dn x R
Dn= Tyre diameter
R= 3.04
Gear speed
Dv= Dlr x 60 : V : Gf : 1000 x N
Dlr= Real tire development
V= Gearbox ratio
Gf= Final ratio
N= Rpm number
Unitary cylinder volume
Vu= Dp x PI x C : 1000
Dp= Piston diameter : 2 and squared
PI= 3.1416
C= Crank stroke
Compression chamber volume
Vc= Vu x Rc : 100
Vu= Unitary cylinder volume
Rc= Compression ratio
Compression ratio
Rc= Vu + Vc : Vc
Vu= Unitary cylinder volume
Vc= Combustion chamber volume
Piston linial speed
V= N x C x 2 : 60000
N= Rpm number
C= Crank stroke
Con rod ratio
Rb= Lb : C
Lb= Con rod length
C= Crank stroke
Cam duration
D= Ga + Ge + 180
Ga= Advance degrees opening inlet
Ge= Retard degrees closing exhaust
Crank position in the inlet cam center
Pc= Du : 2 – Ga
Du= Cam duration
Ga= Advance degrees opening inlet
Crank position in the exhaust cam center
Pc= Du : 2 – Ge
Du= Cam duration
Ge= Retard degrees closing exhaust
S= Ga + Ge
Ga= Advance degrees opening inlet
Ge= Retard degrees closing exhaust


We at VGKracing hope that this information was helpful and if you didn’t find here an answers to your questions or doubts, please do not hesitate to contact us.



Featured links